Endocrinology

Endocrinology


Acromegaly

When your pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone, abnormal growth occurs. This is called acromegaly. The abnormal growth starts in your hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell. This rare disease affects mostly middle-aged adults. It can lead to severe illness and even death if not treated.

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Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)

Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands don’t make enough of the hormone cortisol. You have two adrenal glands. They are located just above the kidneys. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. Cortisol helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in your body. It also controls blood pressure and affects how your immune system works.

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Disorders of the Adrenal Glands

Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands

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Adrenal Glands

Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function

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Pheochromocytoma: An Adrenal Gland Tumor

A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor. It grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. A pheochromocytoma causes the adrenal glands to make too much of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones help keep your heart rate and blood pressure normal.

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Anatomy of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.

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Hormones and the Endocrine System

Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system

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Cushing Syndrome

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder. It’s caused when you have high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing's syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.

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Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body doesn’t make enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or your kidneys don’t respond to it. ADH helps keep the right amount of water in your body.

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Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Thyroiditis is when your thyroid gland becomes irritated. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common type of this health problem. It is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. The thyroid then can’t make enough of the thyroid hormone.

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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are overactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. If these glands are overactive, they make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). That raises the level of calcium in your blood.

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Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is too active. This tiny gland is found in your neck. An overactive thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This makes your metabolism work at a faster rate.

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Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are underactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. They also keep the levels of magnesium and phosphorus normal. If these glands are underactive, they do not make enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).

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Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism happens when your pituitary gland is not active enough. As a result the gland does not make enough hormones.

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Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is the most common type of thyroid disorder. It means your thyroid gland is not active enough. This tiny gland is found in your neck. Its job is to make thyroid hormone. If the gland is underactive, it may not make enough thyroid hormone.

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Home Page - Endocrinology

Detailed information on endocrine disorders

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Online Resources - Endocrinology

List of online resources to find additional information on endocrine disorders

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Pancreatic Cancer: Introduction

Learn the basics of pancreatic cancer, including the types of cancer in the pancreas.

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Pancreas

Detailed anatomical description of human pancreas, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

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Disorders of the Pancreas

Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

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Parathyroid Glands

Detailed information on parathyroid glands, including anatomy and function

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Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands

Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland

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Parathyroid Tumor

Detailed information on parathyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment

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Pituitary Gland

Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the pituitary gland

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Disorders of the Pituitary Gland

Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors

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Pituitary Tumors

A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland in the brain. It makes hormones that affect many other glands and many functions in your body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body.

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Postpartum Thyroiditis

Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid becomes inflamed after having a baby. It may first cause your thyroid to be overactive (hyperthyroidism). But in time it leads to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). A small percentage of pregnant women get this health problem.

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Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy

Signs of an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may be masked by pregnancy. But the thyroid is important for your baby’s brain development. Learn if you should be screened for hypothyroidism.

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Reproductive Glands

Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the reproductive glands

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Empty Sella Syndrome

Empty sella syndrome (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.

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Topic Index - Endocrinology

Detailed information on endocrine disorders

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Thyroid Function Tests

Detailed information on the most common types of thyroid function tests

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Thyroid Gland

Detailed information on the thyroid gland, including anatomy and function

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Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

Detailed information on thyroid hormone replacement therapy

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Disorders of the Thyroid

Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm

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Thyroid Cancer: Targeted Therapy

Detailed information on targeted therapy for thyroid tumors.

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Type 1 Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t make insulin. Insulin is needed to help glucose enter cells for energy. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. This causes high blood glucose or high blood sugar.

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Thyroid Disorders in Women

Detailed information on thyroid disorders and how they affect women, including puberty, pregnancy, and menopause.

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Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome greatly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or all three.

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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be a condition by itself, or may be a complication of diabetes or another disorder.

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is the redness and swelling (inflammation) of the pancreas. This happens when digestive juices or enzymes attack the pancreas.

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is a common hormone problem in women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, and have abnormal hormone levels. They may experience missed or irregular periods, excess hair growth and weight gain around the belly.

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